constant stream of curated content
by Pseudo-sciences - 2021-10-14 18:45
Mairie du 5è arrondissement de Paris, 21 place du Panthéon, 75005 Paris La mairie du 5ème arrondissement de Paris et l'Association Française pour l'Information Scientifique (AFIS) vous invitent jeudi 14 octobre 2021, 18h45 Changement climatique, c'est grave docteur ? Par François-Marie Bréon. Ancien élève de l'école normale supérieure, Francois-Marie Bréon est physicien-climatologue depuis 30 ans. Il a participé à la rédaction du 5eme rapport du GIEC. Il est par ailleurs président de l'AFIS. (...) Agenda de l'Afis

by io9 - about 29 minutes
Kyliegh Curran in Doctor Sleep.Image: Warner Bros.Midnight Mass, the latest limited horror series coming to Netflix from The Haunting of Hill House and The Haunting of Bly Manor’s Mike Flanagan, arrives tomorrow. It’s truly perfect timing for a pre-Halloween binge. But once you’ve devoured Midnight Mass—starring Hamish Linklater, Rahul Kohli, Annabeth Gish, and more—where else can you turn to get an extra Flanagan fix? io9 has some ideas.If you don’t want to invest the time rewatching Hill House and Bly Manor (or his Stephen King series, Gerald’s Game), the filmmaker’s feature-film list is also, unsurprisingly, heavy on horror storytelling that shares some familiar traits with his Netflix hits....

by Paul Jorion - about 33 minutes
Je ne dis rien, je vais être le plus honnête possible : ne juger que sur pièces. Peut-être en cours de route. On verra.
by Goalcast - about 38 minutes
The first thing to understand about overcoming depression is that no matter how impossible it seems, or how far gone you feel, it is possible. Every choice you make matters and can have an impact on how your life unfolds. We all know the stories of famous people such as Kurt Cobain and Avicii who succumbed to this illness, but the truth is that YOU CAN overcome depression. Because depression is complex, presenting with a wide range of symptoms and severity levels, it affects everyone differently. For this reason, it makes sense that there is no cure-all formula. That said, fortunately there is a ton of research on lifestyle choices and treatment options that can help in relieving depression symptoms or or...

by New Yorker - about 39 minutes
You have expanded the definition of “work” to mean simply sitting at your desk.

by Descartes - about 40 minutes
Ce week-end, je suis descendu rendre visite à des amis à Aix en Provence. Une ville que je connais bien pour y avoir autrefois travaillé et fait pas mal de politique. Et même si la plupart de mes connaissances ont … Continuer la lecture →
by Goalcast - about 47 minutes
These days, it almost feels like life's the full-time grind while work is the escape. Her everyday struggle Angel, an employee at Modell's sporting goods store will tell you that. While training a new associate named Joey during the filming of a documentary, she confided to him about her struggles. "I love this job... but it hasn't always been this way," Angel confesses. When Angel turned 25, she became pregnant and lost her old job as restaurant manager. We've been homeless for a long time. We live in a shelter now. It doesn't matter, though. I don't want you to feel sad for me
- Angel Angel said that she'd been living there with her three children for two years. Prior to that, she said that they've slept in...

by The Verge - about 49 minutes
Photo by Vjeran Pavic / The Verge Microsoft announced a new Surface Duo 2 this week that’s shipping with Android 11, and now the company is committing to release the OS update for original devices this year. “We remain committed to providing updates to Surface Duo, and we’re working to bring Android 11 to existing customers before the end of this year,” says a Microsoft spokesperson in a statement to The Verge.
That’s not a firm release date, but then we’ve never had one for Android 11 on the Surface Duo. Previous reports suggested it would land in the summer, but as we move closer to fall and there was no mention at Microsoft’s Surface event, it’s clearly taking longer than expected. Photo by...

by KCRW - about 53 minutes
I distinctly remember the first time I was ever embarrassed by my food. It was in second grade at Denker Avenue School in Gardena, where all but a few of my classmates were Japanese American. Born in East Los and raised in the South Bay, I wasn’t yet aware that I was Mexican. I knew I was different, but it wasn’t something I consciously attributed to race. I mostly thought it was my lack of stuff. I had no real concept of money, nor that my family’s shortage of it — rather than what I thought was simply my mother’s disdain for material objects — was the reason I had no Hello Kitty erasers. No My Melody stickers. No Little Twin Stars pencils – nothing of the recently popular Sanrio crew for me to...

by Goalcast - about 1 hour
To accomplish her goals took years of perseverance and hard work. She spent her days in Smoky Mountain When Sophy Ron was a child, she spent 8 years essentially living in a notorious Cambodian garbage dump called Steng Meanchey, also known as "Smoky Mountain." Every day, Ron would join thousands of people picking through the garbage amidst toxic fumes in hopes of finding food and recyclables to sell. In a day's work, she'd earn about 0.50 cents a day, enough for a few cups of rice to share with her parents and six siblings. "I didn't realize it was smelly, I didn't realize it was dirty," she told ABC Australia in 2019, adding that the local school didn't have space for her. "I slept there, I ate there, I did...

by The Verge - about 1 hour
Illustration: Alex Castro / The Verge Google is adding a new button to Google Calendar events on mobile and the web that will immediately open a chat with meeting attendees. Google launched its rebranded version of Hangouts Chat to customers earlier this year and has slowly added more features to the main Gmail landing page, including its Zoom-like Google Meet video chat.
The new Chat button appears next to the attendee list in a Calendar event. Previously, Google only offered the ability to email attendees about a meeting, but since the company has closely integrated Chats and Gmail — seemingly to popularize Chats — this new addition makes sense. You can start a chat before, during, or after the meeting...

by France Inter - about 1 hour
Après l'abandon du projet de loi grand âge, le Premier ministre a annoncé aujourd'hui 400 millions d'euros supplémentaires pour l'aide aux personnes âgées en 2022. 10000 soignants seront recrutés en EHPAD d'ici 2025.

by The Verge - about 2 hours
People will be able to mark their NFTs as legitimate on Twitter. | Twitter Twitter is turning on the ability to ask for tips in Bitcoin through its app, making it the first major social network to encourage use of the cryptocurrency as a method of payment. The company also plans to let users connect their crypto wallets and authenticate the ownership of NFTs they tweet with a special badge.
Twitter has been testing tipping for a few months now, but the company hasn’t made tips widely available until Thursday, when the feature is rolling out globally on iOS with Android to follow. Besides Bitcoin, Twitter will let users connect nine traditional payment providers, including Venmo and Cash App, to their...

by Le Monde - about 2 hours
Notre enquête révèle que l’ancien préfet de l’Aube et de la Dordogne avait été visé par des enquêtes administratives pour des dépenses non justifiées.

by The Verge - about 2 hours
Photo by Andrew Hawkins / The Verge Belgium’s finest electric bike maker, Cowboy, is crossing the pond and expanding its operations to the US. Cowboy will only have one model available to American customers: its fourth-generation e-bike, aptly named the C4. The C4 comes in a high-step or step-through frame and is available for pre-order for the early bird price of $1,990. This is a very big deal for Cowboy, which has quickly grown into one of the more interesting and impressive e-bike companies in Europe since its launch in 2017. Cowboy has raised $42 million in venture capital funding and sold over 25,000 bikes across 11 different European markets. And now they’re saddling up and heading to the US....

by The Verge - about 2 hours
Illustration by Alex Castro / The Verge Facebook announced a new project on Thursday that will bring broadband service to thousands of households in Virginia this fall, in partnership with a local ISP and utility company.
The project began with fiber networks Facebook was already building to connect its data centers in Virginia, Ohio, and North Carolina. With that fiber already laid, Facebook partnered with Appalachian Power and GigaBeam Networks to extend the networks to roughly 6,000 households in Grayson County, VA. The homes are projected to have high-speed broadband access by the end of this fall.
“These are really complicated problems that we’re trying to solve”
“These are really complicated...

by io9 - about 2 hours
And now she knows that someone knows what she did last summer.Image: Akiva Griffith/Amazon StudiosLast week, the first teaser trailer for Amazon Prime’s I Know What You Did Last Summer TV series—based on the 1972 book and 1997 movie of the same name—came out and we were underwhelmed, especially given that the show is being produced by horror maestro James Wan. The teaser seemed to be comprised of hedonistic centennials grinding on each other. Happily, a new, full trailer for the upcoming series is here to remind you they’re all going to die brutally.If you are unfamiliar with the book, the movie, or failed to watch the trailer above for some reason, here’s the official synopsis:“One year after the...

by QZ - about 2 hours
Trips in ride-share cars are more damaging to the climate, and impose a greater cost to society in terms of traffic congestion and public safety, than journeys in private vehicles, according to a new study from engineering and public policy researchers at Carnegie Mellon University.The researchers gathered public data on rides with Uber, Lyft, and other services in Austin, Chicago, New York, and cities in California. Using a computer model to simulate 100,000 trips, they painted a representative picture of journey lengths, the time spent in between rides (known as “deadheading”), and the types of vehicles used by drivers.What is deadheading?Read the rest of this story on qz.com. Become a member to get...

by Toute l'Europe - about 2 hours
Le palais du Reichstag abrite le Bundestag, chambre basse du Parlement allemand, appelé à être renouvelé lors des élections fédérales - Crédits : Teka77 / iStock 1ere ! Au sein de l’Union européenne, l’Allemagne occupe la première place dans de nombreux domaines. Pays le plus peuplé du continent avec 83 millions d’habitants (sur 447 pour l’UE), elle en est également la première économie (un quart du PIB de l’UE en 2020 avec 3 400 milliards d’euros), son plus grand exportateur (un quart des biens et services de l’UE), et sa principale industrie (le secteur emploie un tiers de la population active allemande, notamment dans l’automobile). Elle constitue, avec la France, l’un des...

by Courrier International - about 2 hours
Âgée de 28 ans, cette enseignante britannique a été retrouvée morte dimanche 19 septembre. Elle aurait été assassinée dans un parc de la capitale du Royaume-Uni. Une affaire qui rappelle celle du meurtre de Sarah Everard, et qui a poussé le maire de Londres à parler d’une “épidémie de violences contre les femmes”.

by Toute l'Europe - about 2 hours
Les informations présentées sur cette page, valables au 23/09/2021, sont susceptibles d’évoluer. Le texte et la carte sont intégralement mis à jour de manière hebdomadaire. Nous signalons les dernières nouvelles dans un encadré en début d’article.Par ailleurs, les pays frontaliers de la France font l’objet d’une mise à jour plus régulière. Les changements sont indiqués dans le texte, avec la date à laquelle les mesures sont valables.Outre l’Union européenne, le Royaume-Uni et les pays de l’Espace économique européen sont également couverts dans cet article. La Commission européenne a proposé le 17 mars dernier la mise en place d’un certificat numérique commun afin de...

by Le Monde - about 2 hours
L’ancien négociateur de l’UE pour le Brexit a détaillé son programme, qui comporte notamment un référendum sur l’immigration.

by QZ - about 3 hours
Supermodel Linda Evangelista announced today (Sept. 23) that she hasn’t worked for more than five years because a cosmetic procedure left her “brutally disfigured.” The 56-year-old Canadian was one of the most in-demand models in the 1990s, starring in top designers’ runway shows—and a George Michael music video—alongside the likes of Kate Moss, Naomi Campbell, and Christy Turlington.In an Instagram post, Evangelista says she’s stayed out of the spotlight while her peers’ careers have been “thriving,” after she underwent a procedure called CoolSculpting, which she blames for her condition—it allegedly did the “opposite of what it promised.” She did not share an image of her...

by Toute l'Europe - about 3 hours
Plusieurs définitions regroupant des pratiques différentes Pour l’Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), trois types de locuteurs francophones peuvent être distingués. Les premiers sont les francophones de naissance, que l’on retrouve en particulier en France, dans la fédération de Wallonie-Bruxelles, en Suisse romande et au Luxembourg. Ils naissent et vivent dans un environnement francophone, sauf en cas d’expatriation. Certains locuteurs, dont le français n’est pas la langue maternelle, “vivent aussi en français”, selon l’expression de l’OIF. Ils ont appris le français à l’école mais utilisent la langue presque quotidiennement dans une sphère professionnelle,...

by QZ - about 3 hours
Hi Quartz members,Steel is a competitive industry. Steelmakers worldwide have long had to grapple with fierce competition from rivals in China, whose overproduction puts pressure on everyone else. Now they must also try to decarbonize the industry, which will involve costly investments. Meanwhile, global demand for steel is forecast to grow a mere 1% in the long term.Read the rest of this story on qz.com. Become a member to get unlimited access to Quartz’s journalism.

by Usbek & Rica - about 3 hours
IA et combat, quand les robots partent au front.

by io9 - about 3 hours
Screenshot: Disney+While what is felt may never die, in Disney+’s upcoming Muppets Haunted Manson, a number of the beloved puppets will portray characters who’ve given up their mortal coils in a story based on Disney’s ghost-focused theme park ride. Check out the first full trailer for the upcoming Halloween special.Because few things really scare Gonzo the Great (performed by Dave Goelz), it doesn’t take much convincing to get him to agree to spend a night with Pepe the King Prawn (Bill Barretta) in a decrepit house infested with ghosts on Halloween night. The new trailer brings Gonzo and Pepe to the titular mansion on a misty evening and shows you how the pair seemingly avoid every glaring red flag...

by Courrier International - about 3 hours
Le premier titre du petit studio indépendant britannique Shedworks invite à un voyage initiatique chaleureux. Sable a séduit les critiques anglo-saxons par sa direction artistique originale, mais pas seulement.

by QZ - about 3 hours
This week, NASA split its human spaceflight division in two.Administrator Bill Nelson said one directorate would focus on operational activities in space, and the other would develop new technologies and concepts for future missions. In effect, the move separates NASA’s work in low-Earth orbit from decisions about how the space agency will return astronauts to the moon through the Artemis program.This is not an unusual structure on its face; a similar organization was used by NASA prior to 2011, and the US military separates the people responsible for developing and testing new technology from those who operate it.Read the rest of this story on qz.com. Become a member to get unlimited access to Quartz’s...

by New Yorker - about 3 hours
“Finally it’s amazing-technicolor-dreamcoat weather.”

by France Inter - about 3 hours
L'ONG Reclaim, dans son dernier rapport, montre que le monde de la finance, banques et investisseurs, malgré des engagements en faveur du climat, continue de financer des projets d'exploitation de pétrole et de gaz en Arctique. Une "bombe climatique" à venir.

by Courrier International - about 3 hours
Confronté depuis plusieurs années à une grave crise liée à la consommation de stupéfiants, qui a atteint des sommets l’année dernière, le gouvernement local a décidé de changer son fusil d’épaule, salue ce tabloïd de Glasgow.

by Courrier International - about 3 hours
L’obsession occidentale à propos du nucléaire nord-coréen est inutile : Pyongyang n’y renoncera jamais. Sans compter que les États-Unis ne donnent pas le bon exemple en équipant l’Australie de sous-marins à propulsion nucléaire.

by Courrier International - about 3 hours
Depuis 1949, la ville du sud de l’Allemagne vote traditionnellement pour les conservateurs de la CSU ou les sociaux-démocrates du SPD lors des législatives. Cette année, un troisième parti est en passe de les évincer : dans plusieurs circonscriptions, les Verts sont extrêmement bien placés.

by Paul Jorion - about 3 hours
Comme une grosse mouche m’empêchait de faire la sieste, je me suis posé la question suivante : “Combien de fois la Terre a-t-elle inventé l’aile ?”
Au premier essai il m’est venu :
– l’aile de l’insecte
– l’aile du ptérodactyle et du ptéranodon
– l’aile du poisson (nageoire de l’exocet)
– l’aile de l’oiseau
– l’aile du mammifère (chauve-souris)
– l’aile d’avion (par l’intermédiaire de l’être humain)
Un passage rapide sur Wikipédia m’a obligé de distinguer – l’aile du ptérosaure (ptérodactyle)
– l’aile du reptile (ptéranodon)
Y en a-t-il d’autres ? Seconde question : sont-ce bien des inventions indépendantes ou bien l’une ou l’autre...

by KCRW - about 4 hours
David Lynch Theater Presents: Weather Report for September 23, 2021.

by io9 - about 4 hours
Am and Karre’s sibling bond is the basis for many fun riffs on Star Wars’ enduring themes.Screenshot: LucasfilmWhat makes Star Wars: Visions work so well in the first place is its almost ceaseless yearning for flair and flash always comes with storytelling that’s driven by the fundamental themes which have defined Star Wars for generations. One of the most dazzling of the nine animated shorts in the series understands this keenly—with a reminder of one of the Skywalker Saga’s most important lessons.“The Twins”—produced by Studio Trigger and directed by Kill la Kill and Promare’s Hiroyuki Imaishi—is certainly one of the shorts that pushes the boundaries of what Star Wars fans might consider...

by QZ - about 4 hours
In recent years, fair compensation has become an important issue across industries, with conversations about the federal minimum wage, workplace unions, and salary transparency dominating multiple news cycles. While these discussions have become catalysts for positive societal change, overall employee financial wellness is about more than just the weekly take-home. In this episode of Make Business Better, Prudential Insurance Group President Jamie Kalamarides makes the business case for helping employees cultivate greater financial resilience. The economic toll of the Covid-19 pandemic on workers worldwide has emphasized the need for paid employee leave and affordable healthcare and a reexamination of...

by Usbek & Rica - about 4 hours
Alors que les prix du gaz et du CO2 flambent, ceux de l’électricité connaissent, eux aussi, une augmentation inédite sur le marché européen. Comment l’expliquer ? Quelles conséquences pour les consommateurs ? Décryptage.

by Goalcast - about 4 hours
After 36 years of marriage, Jamie Lee Curtis and Christopher Guest’s love story is impressive by any standard, but especially by Hollywood’s. The couple, who met in the mid-1980s, is proof that when you open yourself up to love, great things can happen. But they’re also adamant about the fact that a long-lasting union isn’t easy. Rather, it takes ongoing work and Curtis’ advice for marital bliss boils down to just two simple words, which are likely to surprise you. Here’s what we can learn from Jamie Lee Curtis and Christopher Guest’s decades-long romance: "I think it’s crucial to put yourself in the path of love.” That’s the first piece of advice Jamie Lee Curtis offers when asked about...

by HackAdAy - about 5 hours
YouTube does a pretty good job of making itself a target for criticism, but one thing you can say about their algorithms: when they work, they really work. Case in point, the other day I found a suggestion in my feed for a very recent video about salvaging a shipwreck. I can’t begin to guess what combination of view history and metadata Google mined to come to the conclusion that I’d be interested in this video, but they hit the nail on the head.
But more importantly, their algorithmic assessment of my interests must have been a goldmine to them — or it could have been if I didn’t have a minefield of ad blockers protecting me — because I fell down a rabbit hole that led me to a bunch of interesting...

by io9 - about 5 hours
Get ready for more vampire delights.Screenshot: ParamountSuperman punches a lot of holes in a lot of people in a new Injustice trailer. Michelle Gomez talks a little more about her approach to Doom Patrol’s Madame Rouge. Plus, new glimpses at Venom: Let There Be Carnage and Ghostbusters: Afterlife. To me, my spoilers!Untitled Conversion Camp Horror FilmDeadline reports Kevin Bacon has joined the cast of Blumhouse’s currently untitled horror film set at a conversion camp in an undisclosed role. She WillDeadline also reports Dario Argento is attached to produce She Will, a “psychological thriller” from director Charlotte Colbert starring Alice Krige, Kota Eberhardt, Malcolm McDowell, and Rupert Everett....

by CIBDI - about 5 hours
2021 sera une bonne année pour le roman de Victoria Mas, Le bal des folles (prix Stanislas du premier roman et prix Renaudot des lycéens 2019) : une bd parue en septembre et un film diffusé sur une plateforme de streaming l'été prochain. Il faut dire que l'histoire, inspirée de faits réel, à de quoi saisir. Au XIXe siècle, chaque année, à la mi-carême, les malades de la Salpêtrière (épileptiques, hystériques, maniaques etc.) étaient affichées devant le tout Paris lors d'une fête déguisée nommée le Bal des (...) -
sélections de la Cité

by CIBDI - about 6 hours
Astrid et Charlie sont amies mais aux yeux des autres collégiens, elles ne se parlent pas, voir même se détestent, Charlie n'hésitant pas à harceler Astrid. Toutes deux portent un mal être et ont fait un serment mortel... Un bel album sur l'adolescence et ses difficultés, le harcèlement scolaire et la quête d'identité. (CF)
iconacheterachetez cet album sur le site de la librairie -
sélections de la Cité

by Le Monde - about 6 hours
L’AfD, crédité de 11 % à 13 % des voix, a bâti sa campagne sur la défense des « libertés », que ce soit contre les restrictions ou la vaccination. A Görlitz, dans la Saxe, le message est reçu.

by Wired - about 6 hours
Every television deserves a dedicated row of speakers to call its own. These are our favorites.

by France Inter - about 6 hours
Depuis le 1er septembre, une nouvelle loi interdit l'avortement à plus de 6 semaines de grossesse dans l'état du Texas. Une législation des plus restrictives au nom de laquelle un médecin texan, ayant récemment admis l'avoir enfreinte, a été poursuivi par deux personnes.

by Chez Foucart - about 6 hours
Huit éditions …déjà ! Même s’il s’agit officiellement de sa troisième édition, le Marathon du […]

by Chez Foucart - about 6 hours
Il n’y a pas d’extrait, car cette publication est protégée.
by Wired - about 7 hours
The creators of Blacks & Whites want to make talking about inequality easier—and might teach your racist uncle a thing or two.

by CIBDI - about 7 hours
Colloque porté par Les Bréchoises, groupe de travail sur les femmes dans la Bande Dessinée, rattachée à l'association La Brèche. Il est organisé grâce au soutien de l'EUR ArTeC, l'Université Paris 8, la MSH Paris Nord, l'Université Bordeaux Montaigne, l'Université Paris Nanterre, les Archives du Féminisme, l'association EFiGiES, le LEGS/CNRS et la BnF. Nos partenaires internationaux sont l'Université de Lausanne, l'Université de Gênes et l'Université de Valence.
voir l'appel à communications en francais , (...) -
actualités de la bd
by Fubiz - about 7 hours
Bénédicte Piccolillo est une graphiste et street artiste française. C’est elle qui se cache derrière « Voglio Bene ». Cette année, après avoir ouvert un showroom / boutique à Mauguio, une charmante ville du sud de la France, elle a été invitée à décorer un mur à Santa Reparata, une commune de Balagne, pour la première édition du festival Santa Ripat’arte, en Corse. Une création qui fait suite à son précédent collage monumental réalisé durant l’été 2020 à Lozzi. Ainsi, c’est sur la Chapelle de Palmentu qu’elle a eu l’occasion de s’exprimer. « J’ai travaillé un tableau que l’organisation m’a soumis. Il s’agit d’une représentation de Sainte Philomène,...

by Wired - about 8 hours
A recent wave of attacks belies an apparent lull toward the end of the summer.

by Wired - about 8 hours
Local evidence of the cataclysm has literally washed away over the years. But Oregon’s Douglas firs may have recorded clues deep in their tree rings.

by Wired - about 8 hours
DeSnake apparently eluded the DOJ's takedown of AlphaBay. The admin talked to WIRED about his return—and the resurrection of the notorious underground marketplace.

by HackAdAy - about 8 hours
Bluetooth has become widely popular since its introduction in 1999. However, it’s also had its fair share of security problems over the years. Just recently, a research group from the Singapore University of Technology and Design found a serious vulnerability in a large variety of Bluetooth devices. Having now been disclosed, it is known as the BrakTooth vulnerability.
Full details are not yet available; the research team is waiting until October to publicly release proof-of-concept code in order to give time for companies to patch their devices. The basic idea however, is in the name. “Brak” is the Norweigan word for “crash,” with “tooth” referring to Bluetooth itself. The attack involves...

by New Yorker - about 9 hours
Four vaccinated adults and two unvaccinated children had mild symptoms. Is this what the end of the pandemic looks like?

by New Yorker - about 9 hours
I regret to inform you that it did not live up to my expectations.

by New Yorker - about 9 hours
In “Several People Are Typing,” Calvin Kasulke takes office agony to its outer limits.

by Toute l'Europe - about 9 hours
Le géant russe Gazprom fournit plus du tiers du gaz européen. Il est accusé d’être entre autres à l’origine de la récente flambée du prix de l’électricité au sein de l’UE - Crédits : BalkansCat / iStock La hausse des prix de l’énergie, un “spectre qui hante l’Europe”, entame Euronews. Ce spectre, qui planait depuis plusieurs années déjà sur le continent, se fait de plus en plus pressant depuis le début de l’année 2021. Les journalistes de Reuters Kate Abnett et Isla Binnie rapportent que “les prix de référence de l’électricité en Europe se sont envolés cette année, faisant plus que tripler en Espagne et dans d’autres pays”. L’Espagne est en effet “très...